Unseen Japan

The Japan You Don't Learn About in Anime.

He remade Japan, not with a sword, but with his wits. Read more about how a low ranking samurai brought down the Shogunate.

Sakamoto Ryoma: The Samurai Who Ended the Samurai

Essay   Posted on January 07, 2019 in tokugawa, feudal japan, history, war, america • By Jay Andrew Allen • Read Related Articles

In this series of posts, I'll introduce the people featured in our site's banner, going from left to right. The information below (as always) is gleaned from Japanese language sources; all errors and misinterpretations, however, are mine, and I welcome corrections to anything below.

Part 1 - Tokugawa Ieyasu: The Hero That Everyone in Japan Hates
Part 2 - Murasaki Shikibu: The First Lady of Japanese Literature
Part 3 - Akutagawa Ryonosuke: A Life of Intense and Fleeting Genius
Part 5 - Ichikawa Fusae: The First Woman of Japanese Politics

When I took my first trip to Japan, my wife (then-fiancee) and I spent several nights in Kyoto in a ryokan in Fushimi. As we walked around, I noticed that the town was a virtual monument to a single samurai. The town is host to a full 1 kilometer trail dedicated to him, indicating notable places the samurai stayed, where he fell in love, and even where he was almost murdered.

The samurai’s name is Sakamoto Ryoma (坂本龍馬; sakamoto ryouma), and I quickly discovered that he was one of the driving forces behind the fall of the Shogunate and the rise of the new Japan. I also discovered that, when you change the world, you make a slew of enemies. Ryoma’s life ended at age 31, but his legacy continues to inspire people well into the modern era.

The End of 260 Years of Peace

Before discussing Ryoma’s life, it’s important to understand the world into which Ryoma was born.

For two centuries, since Tokugawa Ieyasu won the battle of Sekigahara, the Tokugawa family ruled Japan. The Tokugawa shogun (将軍) sat at the top of the power structure as the ruler of the bakufu (幕府), or warrior government, with Japan's Emperor reduced to symbolic status. Underneath the Tokugawa family were the daimyo (大名; daimyou), the provincial feudal rulers of the country. While a select few daimyo were related to and steadfastly loyal to the shogunate, others - the non-Tokugawa daimyo, or tozama daimyo (外様大名; tozama daimyou) - served under the shogun in a marriage of convenience. The daimyo represented a constant potential threat to the Shogun's power, as any of them could grow powerful enough to eventually overthrow the central government.

The shogunate responded to this threat through several means. One was a system called sankin kotai (参勤交代; sankin koutai). A daimyo and his family were forced to live near the shogun in the capital of Edo every two years. On the in-between years, they were allowed to return home - but their wives and children had to remain behind. This hostage-taking system had the dual effect of keeping the daimyo's love ones under constant threat of dismemberment, while also financially draining the daimyo by forcing them to maintain two household estates.

Between this and the tetsudai fushin (手伝普請), a set of public works projects imposed on the daimyo that also drained local coffers, the Tokugawa family was able to keep these subordinate rulers in line. Along with its plentiful income streams and its skillful placation of the farming community, the Tokugawa family pulled off a remarkable feat: 260 years of mostly peaceful, uninterrupted rule of a united Japan. The result was a cultural explosion that gifted us with many of the cultural arts that are considered today as uniquely Japanese, including Kabuki, woodblock printing, and sushi, among others. Japan's agricultural economy thrived, and its population nearly doubled.

But no ride lasts forever, and eventually, the bakumatsu (幕末), or end of the samurai government, came to dawn. The cracks started in the early 19th century around the time of the 5th Tokugawa shogun, Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (徳川綱吉). The long period of peace in Japan allowed commerce to prosper - which, ironically, undermined the feudal, farming-centric economic model upon which the regime relied. As the number of farmers who fell into poverty increased, so did the number of local protests and rebellions.

(JP) Link: The Edo Samurai Government in 5 Minutes! Why Did It Last for 260 Years? A Look at Why It Failed and at the Shogun

5分でわかる江戸幕府!なぜ260年も続いたの?滅亡した理由や将軍一覧も
さまざまな文化が花開き、現代にも色濃く影響を残した江戸時代。長いあいだ安定した統治がおこなわれた平和な時代として知られています。この記事では、なぜ江戸幕府の治めていた時代がこんなにも長く続き、そしてなぜ滅亡してしまったのか、その理由をわかりやすく解説するとともにおすすめの関連本をご紹介します。

This increasing discontent didn't go unnoticed by two of the largest clans in Japan - the Satsuma clan (薩摩藩; satsuma-han), located in the south in Kagoshima, and the Choshu clan (長州藩; choushuu-han), at the southernmost end of the main island of Honshu. With the rise of commerce, Satsuma in particular began to shine, building iron works and western-style factories, further enriching its own coffers. Choshu's own growth and ambitions found it at odds with the Shogunate until, in the 1860s, the two sides actively went to war against one another.

In short, the mid-1800s were a time of increasing instability. Sakamoto Ryoma ended up being a man well suited to such turbulent times.

The Rise of the Dragon

Lithograph of Sakamoto Ryoma
Sakamoto Ryoma. (Source: Wikipedia)

Sakamoto Ryoma was born in 1835 (the 6th year of the Tempo Imperial Era) to a low-ranking samurai family in the Tosa clan, in modern-day Kochi Prefecture (高知県; kouchi-ken) on the southern island of Shikoku.

Legends about the childhood Ryoma tell of a kid you wouldn't expect to become a samurai. Reputably a terrible student, Royma dropped out of school, after which he was educated primarily by his sister, Otome, who herself excelled at various arts, including swordsmanship, archery, and swimming. Ryoma found himself particularly adept at swordsmanship, and improving his skills became something of an obsession.

In 1853, enthralled with the discipline, Ryoma moved to the capital of Edo, where he studied the Hokushin Itto (北辰一刀流; hokushin ittou-ryuu) style of swordsmanship under Chiba Sadakichi. Hokushin Ittou is often described as a "logical" reworking of other schools of swordsmanship that compressed those traditions' complex 9 levels of progress down to three, and reduced the time required to clear the system from a grueling 10 years down to a mere five.

(JP) Link: Adored by the Bakumatsu Youth! The Logical Training System of Hokushin Ittou and Its Sacred Ground, Genbukan

【幕末の若者を心酔させた!】北辰一刀流の合理的な修養システムとゆかりの聖地「玄武館」
北辰一刀流といえば、坂本龍馬が免許皆伝を受けた千葉道場が有名ですね。千葉道場は通称「小千葉」。では「大千葉」とは?この「大千葉」こそ、北辰一刀流の創始者・千葉周作が開いた玄武館です。神田の玄武館は幕末期の最高峰ともいうべき道場。幕末の日本を動かした多くの若者が、汗を流した場所だったのです。

The Black Boats Arrive

The black ships land in Yokohama, Japan
A lithograph of Commodore Perry's fleet arriving to meet a horde of officials and commissioners of the Tokugawa shogunate on July 14th, 1853. (Source: Wikipedia)

Just two months after Ryoma landed in Edo, Japan's world changed forever. On June 3rd, the first of Commodore Matthew Perry's ships landed in Uraga Bay, an event known as "the arrival of the black boats" (黒船来航; kurobune raikou). Perry brought a simple message to Japan's leaders: open your borders to trade with the US and other Western nations, or we'll open them for you.

Up until that time, Japan is said to have had an "isolationist" policy (Japanese: 鎖国; sakoku). Some thinkers, however, such as Aizawa Osamu, say this term is misleading. Japan wasn't cut off from the world. Rather, the Tokugawa regime funneled all contact and trade through four points of entry - such as the island known as Dejima (出島) off of the coast of Nagasaki - and limited their trading contacts primarily with the Dutch. The shogun received a regular report directly from Dutch traders keeping them abreast of the major events in the world. The Tokugawa government's goal wasn't to "isolate" itself, but to control the flow of goods and information throughout the country. This approach also allowed the Tokugawa government to prevent Christian missionaries from gaining a foothold in the country.

(JP) Link: The Big Lie That the Edo Government Isolated Itself

江戸幕府が「鎖国」していたという大きなウソ | リーダーシップ・教養・資格・スキル
江戸時代、幕府は鎖国を行って海外との交流を断っていた――多くの人、特に、30~40代以上の方は、小学生の頃からこう習ってきたはずである。長崎の出島で限られた国とのみ細々と貿易を行ってはいたが、それ以外は…

While this strategy was successful for several hundred years, Perry's arrival threw the country into chaos. Government officials and samurai scholars fiercely debated how to respond. While many sympathized with this desire to repel the invaders, it was apparent to most level-headed thinkers that the primarily agrarian economy of the Tokugawa bakufu couldn't respond forcefully to Perry's demand for open trade. The Western powers had ships and weaponry that could decimate Japan's sword-swinging samurai in short order. A new movement began: sonno joi (尊皇攘夷; sonnou joui) - "revere the Emperor and expel the barbarians" - a movement which argued that the Emperor should be returned to his rightful place as the sovereign leader of the nation, and the country should muster its armed forces and chase out the foreigners.

Perry gave the Tokugawa government a year to respond to the US President's request; a year passed, however, and the Tokugawa regime had no effective response. The government was left no choice but to sign the Convention of Kanagawa (日米和親条約; nichibei washin jouyaku), a "peace" treaty with very favorable terms for the US. It then later signed a larger peace treaty with most of the larger Western powers.

The move angered Japan's warrior class, and undermined the Tokugawa government's legitimacy in the eyes of many. One of the primary parties to the treaty, Ii Naosuke, was vilified throughout the country, leading him to instigate a round up in 1858 of many associated with the sonno joi movement. Two years later, Naosuke was assassinated. After 260 years of relative peace, Japan was entering into a dangerous and turbulent battle for the soul of the nation.

Ryoma the Ronin (浪人)

The arrival of the black boats only seems to have fueled Ryoma's desire to double down on his studies. The world was changing, but he still had a lot to learn. He entered the school of the intellectual-warrior Sakuma Shozan (佐久間象山; sakuma shouzan), where he studied gunnery, Sinology (Chinese and the Chinese classics), and Dutch, as the Netherlands were Japan's primary trading and communications partner under the "isolationist" policy of the Tokugawa regime. Ryoma took a break from his studies in 1855 upon the death of his father, Hachihei, but returned to Edo in 1856 and resumed his learning.

Ryoma also became actively involved in the debates about the foreigners. The daimyo of the major clans began communicating amongst themselves about the best way to respond to the arrival of the US. We know from letters that Ryoma sent his father that Ryoma himself was a believer in the "repel the barbarians" rhetoric. At the same time, however, Ryoma made contact with others who had knowledge of the world outside of Japan. Such figures included the thinker and artist Kawada Shouryou, who had spent 11 years in America, as well as John Manjirou, a former fisherman from Ryoma's Tosa clan who made his way to America after being shipwrecked on a deserted island. These new friends spun stories about what they had seen abroad, opening up Ryoma's eyes to the wider world, and deepening his thinking. Particularly, they impressed upon Ryoma the huge difference in commerce that separated countries like the US and Britain from Japan.

(JP) Link: All About Sakamoto Ryoma! Going Crazy for This Brilliant Demon - His Famous Sayings and Descendants, On Up To His Assassination

坂本龍馬のすべて!英雄の魂に熱狂しよう~名言や子孫、最後の暗殺まで
このページは、坂本龍馬の誕生から暗殺される最後までの生涯、龍馬の魅力、龍馬を感じることができる足…

Ryoma returned to Tosa where his close friend, Takeichi Suizan (武市瑞山; also known as Takeichi Hanpeita), was working to build a movement that brought Japan's clans together in resistance against the foreigners. Both Takeichi and Ryoma became part of an organization in Tosa called the Tosa Kinoto (土佐勤王党; tosa kinootou), or the Tosa Imperial Loyalist Party, which aimed to make the ideals of the sonno joi movement a reality. Takeichi asked Ryoma to make a key trip to the Choshu clan to gain their cooperation, as Ryoma was one of the few people he could trust.

However, the Party wasn't able to achieve much change in direction among the leadership in Tosa. In Tosa, samurai were divided between lower and upper class samurai. Both Ryoma and Takeichi belonged to the lower class, and were prevented from engaging in politics. Tensions between the two classes had been flaring up in recent years, which resulted in the lower classes being more sidelined and discriminated against than ever.

In this climate, Ryoma started to find his thinking diverge from Takeichi's. Takeichi saw the only path forward as violence - i.e., progress through assassination. As Harada on the site meiji-revolution.com puts it, many in the sonno joi movement shared this fanatical devotion to their cause, which is akin to the attitude of the tokkotai fighters (the so-called "kamikaze" pilots) of World War II:

成功するかどうかという面よりも、とにかく一歩でも前進すること、自分の命をかけてでもその想いや信念を果たすことの方に重きをおいていたのではないか。仮に失敗する確率の方が高くても、行動することの方が大事だったのではないかと感じるのです。

I think they put more weight on the idea that what counted was less the success or failure of an action, but on fulfilling their ideals and convictions by making a small measure of progress - even if it could cost them their lives. Even if the failure rate was high, I feel they saw the action itself as more important.

Ryoma, by contrast, put a premium on both individual human life, and on human relationships. He began to see success, not in military terms, but in terms of building partnerships and bridges with others. Ryoma was possessed with a flexible mind that saw around corners. In his view, it was more important to understand one's opponents and work to find common ground with them than to simply beat them into submission.

So in March of 1862, Ryoma chose the path of dappan (脱藩) - leaving his clan and becoming a clan-less samurai, or ronin (浪人; rounin). It was undoubtedly a tough decision. It was also a decision that changed the course of Japan's history.

Ryoma: Japan's First CEO?

Katsu Kaishu in San Francisco
A lithograph of Katsu Kaishu taken in San Francisco in 1860. (Source: Wikipedia)

Ryoma left Tosa with another ronin, Sawamura Sonojo (沢村 惣之丞; sawamura sounojou), and headed for Choshu. He soon discovered that the political situation was more complicated than he and his friend Takeichi had thought. While some clans, such as Choshu, did indeed support the sonno joi movement, others, such as the powerful Satsuma clan, favored a concept called Official Unification (公武合体論; koushiki gattairon), under which the Imperial Court and the Shogunate would merge into a single branch of government. The sonno joi chose to address dissent by killing the dissenters, leading to outbreaks of violence between the two factions. In a bizarre twist, Ryoma - who had foresworn killing for diplomacy - came under suspicion of assassinating a Tosa politician who had been killed on the orders of Ryoma's friend, Takeichi.

Ryoma soon met a man who would have a huge influence on his life. Katsu Kaishu (勝 海舟; katsu kaishuu) was a warrior who would become an influential politician in the post-samurai era. Katsu told in his own letters that he met Ryoma when Ryoma came to kill him, but Katsu was so persuasive in his vision for Japan's future that Ryoma became his pupil instead. Many people feel this is a tall tale of Katsu's, but regardless of the circumstances, Ryoma soon took to studying sailing and numerous other topics under the tutelage of Katsu, a vaunted sailor who had made frequent trips to America.

Katsu's love of sailing, and his ideas surrounding naval power, were a huge influence on Ryoma. Katsu also had deep political connections, including a relationship with the shogun, Tokugawa Iemochi (徳川 家茂). Katsu introduced Ryoma to other powerful figures, such as Matsudaira Shungaku (松平春嶽), the daimyo of the Fukui clan, who saw something special in Ryoma.

With the influence of these new connections, Ryoma began to cultivate a vision of a strong, economically thriving Japan defended by a strong navy. In 1864, with the financial support of both Katsu and Matsudaira, he became headmaster of a naval school in Kobe, one of Japan's critical port cities. Around the same time, he met his wife, Narasaki Ryo (楢崎龍; narasaki ryou), commonly called "O-Ryo", at the Terada House in Kyoto.

But circumstances soon took a grim turn. Back in Tosa, Takeichi Saizan's Imperal Loyalist Party was decimated by a rival, and Takeichi committed ritualistic suicide in July 1865. In a sorrowful letter to his sister, Ryoma vowed: "I'll wash Japan" (日本を洗濯する).

Ryoma himself came under suspicion. He had many contacts in the sonno joi movement whom he employed strategically. Many of his students were not only supporters of the movement, but were involved in several high-profile attacks on the Shogunate and supporters of Unification. This didn't go unnoticed by the Shogunate, who shut down Ryoma's school.

But Ryoma was far from done. Katsu Kaishu asked the Satsuma Clan to help out. Even though its political leanings differed from Ryoma's, Satsuma realized it needed naval expertise - and Ryoma had it in spades. With funding from Satsuma, Ryoma, all of age 29, started Kameyama Shachu (亀山社中; kameyama shachuu), a private naval shipping and defense firm. It was the first company of its kind in Japan, and even today, some refer to Sakamoto Ryoma as "Japan's first CEO".

As it turned out, all of these seemingly coincidental circumstances - Ryoma leaving Tosa, his friendship with Katsu, his marriage of convenience with the Satsuma clan - put him in a position to change history.

Ryoma and the Satsuma-Choshu Alliance

Statues of Takeichi Hanpeita, Sakamoto Ryoma, and Nakaoka Shintaro
Statues in Kochi Prefecture memorializing three of the samurai instrumental in toppling the Shogunate: Takeichi Hanpeita, a leader of the sonno joi movement; Sakamoto Ryoma; and Nakaoka Shintaro, who played a pivotal role in negotiating the Satsuma-Choshu alliance. (Source: u2k / PIXTA(ピクスタ))

As discussed above, the two most powerful clans in Japan, Satsuma and Choshu, were at odds over how to restructure Japanese society to deal with the threat posed by the Western powers. The two clans were effectively at war with each other: when the Shogunate moved to crush the sonno joi movement, it decided to attack its beating heart, the Choshu clan - and it leveraged the forces of Satsuma to do it. Choshu soldiers referred to Satsuma soldiers as "the Satsu Pirates". The bad blood between the clans ran deep.

But Ryoma, ever the strategist, looked past the clans' differences, and found areas where they could cooperate. For Choshu, it was weapons: the Shogunate had forbidden them from acquiring sophisticated weapons from the West, which put them at a severe disadvantage against their enemies. And Ryoma knew that Satsuma also faced a dire problem: rice production. Its yields were dropping drastically, and the clan had no way to make up the difference. In other words, each clan had what the other desperately needed.

Relying on a fellow Tosa refugee, Nakaoka Shintaro (中岡慎太郎; nakaoka shintarou) as a mediator, Ryoma's company worked to secure a treaty. After two failed attempts at the negotiating table, Ryoma showed up personally to the third meeting, and an agreement was secured. The agreement, called the Satsuma-Choshu Alliance (薩長同盟; sacchou doumei), not only established trade relations, but secured Satsuma's commitment to back Choshu militarily if it was attacked again by the Shogunate.

The agreement changed the tide of Japanese history. Thanks both to Satsuma's backing as well as to the advanced steam ships and weapons it received from the alliance, Choshu was able to defend itself against the Shogun's forces in a renewed battle in 1866 (The Second Choshu Assault: 第二次長州征伐, dainiji choushuu seibatsu), strengthening its own position while severely weakening the bakufu. With two of the largest clans now allied against the Shogunate, other, smaller clans hesitated to take the Shogun's side.

While the Tokugawa government would hold on for another year, its fate had already been settled by a rogue samurai from Tosa.

The First Assassination Attempt

Stone marker indicating where Ryoma hid
A stone marker in Fushimi, Kyoto, indicating where Ryoma and his bodyguard, Miyoshi Shinzou, hid from the Shogun's forces.(Source: Wikipedia)

The Satsuma-Choshu Alliance made Sakamoto Ryoma a marked man.

In March of 1866, Ryoma stayed in the Terada House (寺田屋; teradaya) where O-Ryou worked. Accompanying him was a bodyguard, Miyoshi Shinzo (三吉慎蔵; Miyoshi Shinzou), assigned by the Satsuma clan. While taking a bath, O-Ryou heard some 30 men from the Shogun-controlled magistrate's office surround the building. She warned Ryoma and Miyoshi, who were able to muster their defenses before the guards stormed in.

The men attempted to seize or kill Ryoma, who used a pistol to shoot two of them dead, while Miyoshi fended off the rest with a spear. But Ryoma's hand was badly injured, and he was bleeding profusely. Miyoshi led Ryoma out of the building and tried to get him to the Satsuma residence in Kyoto, but couldn't find his way in the dead of night. The two hid in a wooden shed until morning. Miyoshi was prepared to take his own life through seppuku, but Ryoma persuaded him to leave him behind, and seek out help from Satsuma's forces himself.

Eventually, Miyoshi made it to the Satsuma residence, and Satsuma forces retrieved a barely conscious Ryoma.

On the advice of his physician and the order of the head of the Satsuma military, Saigo Takamori (西郷隆盛; saigou takamori), Ryoma and O-Ryou took a 92-day respite in Kagoshima. It was perhaps the first time in years that the ambitious samurai was able to take a vacation.

After recuperating, Ryoma didn't slow down. Besides tending to his shipping business, he became a critical figure in the discussions around the Restoration of Power to the Emperor (大政奉還; taiseihoukan). The leaders of Satsuma and Choshu were keen on bringing down the Shogunate through armed conflict. Ryoma, together with Tosa politician Kogo Shojiro (後藤象二郎; kougou shoujirou), worked to convince all parties to allow for a peaceful transition of power. Ryoma's arguments won the day, and on October 13th, the leaders of 40 clans made a joint announcement that conformed in the main to Ryoma's thinking.

Who Killed Ryoma?

It was the last great act of his short life. On November 11th, Ryoma and Nakaoka Shintaro were ambushed in Omiya in Kyoto by an assailant. Sick and separated from his sword, Ryoma was unable to defend himself. He died at age 31. His friend Nakaoka hung on long enough to give testimony about their assailants, but died a couple of days later.

Ryoma's assailant was never identified or captured, and to this day, his murder remains a mystery. There are four predominant theories:

  1. Kogo Shojiro, who killed Ryoma in an attempt to take full credit for the Restoration's success.
  2. The Satusma clan, who feared what would happen if they didn't remove the bakufu by force, took Ryoma out to undermine the peaceful transition of power.
  3. The Kishu clan, with whom Ryoma had a bitter legal dispute over a sunken ship.
  4. The Shogunate, for whom Ryoma had become Public Enemy Number One.

(JP) Link: Who Killed Sakamoto Ryoma? Who Was the Mastermind? History Author Kirino Sakujin Chases the Truth

【龍馬暗殺150年】誰が龍馬を殺したのか、黒幕は…歴史作家・桐野作人氏が「真相」に迫る
幕末の志士、坂本龍馬と中岡慎太郎が京都・近江屋で暗殺されてから今年で150年。龍馬の生誕地である高知市で、このほど県立坂本龍馬記念館主催のシンポジウムが行われ、…

Whoever killed Ryoma, however, couldn't stop the course of events. The Restoration occurred. Former samurai like Katsu Kaishu transitioned from swordsmen to statesmen, and Japan began building up its industry and its military. Japan was on the path to modernization - and it owed a huge debt to Ryoma for bringing it there.

Ryoma's Lasting Influence

A walking guide to Ryoma's Fushimi
A sign in the Fushimi district of Kyoto depicting Ryoma and his wife, O-Ryou, that highlights "Ryoma Way", a walking tour of Ryoma's favorite haunts. The sign reads: "Sakamoto Ryoma, the capable player of the Meiji Restoration who pursued the realization of the Satsuma-Choshu Alliance and the Restoration of Power to the Emperor. The Shops of Ryoma Way, which run alongside Ryoma's fixed residence of Teradaya, is the place where Ryoma roamed as he once dreamed about a new Japan. It's named after an individual rarely seen in our country, that we may share in his good fortune."(Source: Author's personal photos)

Today, Ryoma's story is often retold in products such as the manga O-i, Ryoma!, and the NHK drama Ryoma-den. It's no exaggeration to call Sakamoto Ryoma one of the lasting heroes, not just of the Meiji Restoration, but of Japanese history.

On his sprawling tribute to Ryoma's life, online author Harada sums up a number of reasons for Ryoma's popularity. A decisive leader who was prepared to go to war if he had to, Ryoma also possessed a compassion and a breadth of thinking that was exceptional for his time. When others reflexively reached for violent solutions to the problems of the day, Ryoma sought first to negotiate peaceful strategies that included all parties.

The restoration of the Emperor put Japan on the path to Empire, resulting in a host of tragedies, including the occupation of Korea, the invasion of China, and World War II. Many in Japan ask themselves: If Ryoma had lived, how might things have been different? We'll never know. What's certain is that post-samurai Japan suffered from the loss of his keen, large-hearted intellect.

I'm the publisher of Unseen Japan. I hold an N1 Certification in the Japanese Language Proficiency Test, and am married to a wonderful woman from Tokyo.

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